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pigs

Introduction

The socket and pipe interfaces allow control of the GPIO by passing messages to the running pigpio library.

The normal way to start the pigpio library would be as a daemon during boot.

sudo pigpiod


pigs is a program and internally uses the socket interface to pigpio whereas /dev/pigpio uses the pipe interface.

Features

o hardware timed PWM on any of GPIO 0-31

o hardware timed servo pulses on any of GPIO 0-31

o reading/writing all of the GPIO in a bank as one operation

o individually setting GPIO modes, reading and writing

o notifications when any of GPIO 0-31 change state

o the construction of output waveforms with microsecond timing

o I2C, SPI, and serial link wrappers

o creating and running scripts on the pigpio daemon

GPIO

ALL GPIO are identified by their Broadcom number.

Usage

pigs and the socket interface share the same commands and are invoked in a similar fashion from the command line.

The pigpio library must be running, either by running a program linked with the library or starting the pigpio daemon (sudo pigpiod).

pigs {command}+

echo "{command}+" >/dev/pigpio

pigs will show the result of the command on screen.

The results of /dev/pigpio commands need to be read from /dev/pigout, e.g. cat /dev/pigout (try cat /dev/pigout& so that all subsequent results are shown on screen).

In both cases if an error was detected a message will have been written to /dev/pigerr (try cat /dev/pigerr&). This is likely to be more informative than the message returned by pigs or the error code returned by the pipe interface.

Several commands may be entered on a line. If present PROC and PARSE must be the last command on a line.

E.g.

pigs w 22 1 mils 1000 w 22 0


is equivalent to

pigs w 22 1
pigs mils 1000
pigs w 22 0


and

echo "m 4 w w 4 0 mils 250 m 4 r r 4" >/dev/pigpio


is equivalent to

echo "m 4 w"    >/dev/pigpio
echo "w 4 0"    >/dev/pigpio
echo "mils 250" >/dev/pigpio
echo "m 4 r"    >/dev/pigpio
echo "r 4"      >/dev/pigpio

Notes

The examples from now on will show the pigs interface but the same commands will also work on the pipe interface.

pigs does not show the status of successful commands unless the command itself returns data. The status (0) will be returned to pigs but will be discarded.

The status/data of each command sent to the pipe interface should be read from /dev/pigout.

When a command takes a number as a parameter it may be entered as hex (precede by 0x), octal (precede by 0), or decimal.

E.g. 23 is 23 decimal, 0x100 is 256 decimal, 070 is 56 decimal.

Overview

BC1 bitsClear specified GPIO in bank 1 gpioWrite_Bits_0_31_Clear
BC2 bitsClear specified GPIO in bank 2 gpioWrite_Bits_32_53_Clear
BI2CC sdaClose bit bang I2C bbI2CClose
BI2CO sda scl bOpen bit bang I2C bbI2COpen
BI2CZ sda bvsI2C bit bang multiple transactions bbI2CZip
BR1Read bank 1 GPIO gpioRead_Bits_0_31
BR2Read bank 2 GPIO gpioRead_Bits_32_53
BS1 bitsSet specified GPIO in bank 1 gpioWrite_Bits_0_31_Set
BS2 bitsSet specified GPIO in bank 2 gpioWrite_Bits_32_53_Set
CF1 uvsCustom function 1 gpioCustom1
CF2 uvsCustom function 2 gpioCustom1
CGIConfiguration get internals gpioCfgGetInternals
CSI vConfiguration set internals gpioCfgSetInternals
FC hClose file handle fileClose
FG u stdySet a glitch filter on a GPIO gpioGlitchFilter
FL pat numList files which match pattern fileList
FN u stdy actvSet a noise filter on a GPIO gpioNoiseFilter
FO file modeOpen a file in mode fileOpen
FR h numRead bytes from file handle fileRead
FS h num fromSeek to file handle position fileSeek
FW h bvsWrite bytes to file handle fileWrite
GDC uGet GPIO PWM dutycycle gpioGetPWMdutycycle
GPW uGet GPIO servo pulsewidth gpioGetServoPulsewidth
H/HELPDisplay command help
HC g cfSet hardware clock frequency gpioHardwareClock
HP g pf pdcSet hardware PWM frequency and dutycycle gpioHardwarePWM
HWVERGet hardware version gpioHardwareRevision
I2CC hClose I2C handle i2cClose
I2CO ib id ifOpen I2C bus and device with flags i2cOpen
I2CPC h r wvsmb Process Call: exchange register with word i2cProcessCall
I2CPK h r bvssmb Block Process Call: exchange data bytes with register i2cBlockProcessCall
I2CRB h rsmb Read Byte Data: read byte from register i2cReadByteData
I2CRD h numi2c Read bytes i2cReadDevice
I2CRI h r numsmb Read I2C Block Data: read bytes from register i2cReadI2CBlockData
I2CRK h rsmb Read Block Data: read data from register i2cReadBlockData
I2CRS hsmb Read Byte: read byte i2cReadByte
I2CRW h rsmb Read Word Data: read word from register i2cReadWordData
I2CWB h r bvsmb Write Byte Data: write byte to register i2cWriteByteData
I2CWD h bvsi2c Write data i2cWriteDevice
I2CWI h r bvssmb Write I2C Block Data i2cWriteI2CBlockData
I2CWK h r bvssmb Write Block Data: write data to register i2cWriteBlockData
I2CWQ h bitsmb Write Quick: write bit i2cWriteQuick
I2CWS h bvsmb Write Byte: write byte i2cWriteByte
I2CWW h r wvsmb Write Word Data: write word to register i2cWriteWordData
I2CZ h bvsPerforms multiple I2C transactions i2cZip
M/MODES g mSet GPIO mode gpioSetMode
MG/MODEG gGet GPIO mode gpioGetMode
MICS vMicroseconds delay gpioDelay
MILS vMilliseconds delay gpioDelay
NB h bitsStart notification gpioNotifyBegin
NC hClose notification gpioNotifyClose
NORequest a notification gpioNotifyOpen
NP hPause notification gpioNotifyPause
P/PWM u vSet GPIO PWM value gpioPWM
PADG padGet pad drive strength gpioGetPad
PADS pad padmaSet pad drive strength gpioSetPad
PARSE tValidate script gpioParseScript
PFG uGet GPIO PWM frequency gpioGetPWMfrequency
PFS u vSet GPIO PWM frequency gpioSetPWMfrequency
PIGPVGet pigpio library version gpioVersion
PRG uGet GPIO PWM range gpioGetPWMrange
PROC tStore script gpioStoreScript
PROCD sidDelete script gpioDeleteScript
PROCP sidGet script status and parameters gpioScriptStatus
PROCR sid parsRun script gpioRunScript
PROCS sidStop script gpioStopScript
PRRG uGet GPIO PWM real range gpioGetPWMrealRange
PRS u vSet GPIO PWM range gpioSetPWMrange
PUD g pSet GPIO pull up/down gpioSetPullUpDown
R/READ gRead GPIO level gpioRead
S/SERVO u vSet GPIO servo pulsewidth gpioServo
SERC hClose serial handle serClose
SERDA hCheck for serial data ready to read serDataAvailable
SERO dev b sefOpen serial device dev at baud b with flags serOpen
SERR h numRead bytes from serial handle serRead
SERRBRead byte from serial handle serReadByte
SERW h bvsWrite bytes to serial handle serWrite
SERWB h bvWrite byte to serial handle serWriteByte
SHELL name strExecute a shell command shell
SLR u numRead bit bang serial data from GPIO gpioSerialRead
SLRC uClose GPIO for bit bang serial data gpioSerialReadClose
SLRI u vSets bit bang serial data logic levels gpioSerialReadInvert
SLRO u b dbOpen GPIO for bit bang serial data gpioSerialReadOpen
SPIC hSPI close handle spiClose
SPIO c b spfSPI open channel at baud b with flags spiOpen
SPIR h numSPI read bytes from handle spiRead
SPIW h bvsSPI write bytes to handle spiWrite
SPIX h bvsSPI transfer bytes to handle spiXfer
T/TICKGet current tick gpioTick
TRIG u pl LSend a trigger pulse gpioTrigger
WDOG u vSet GPIO watchdog gpioSetWatchdog
W/WRITE g LWrite GPIO level gpioWrite
WVAG tripsAdd generic pulses to waveform gpioWaveAddGeneric
WVAS u b db sb o bvsAdd serial data to waveform gpioWaveAddSerial
WVBSYCheck if waveform is being transmitted gpioWaveTxBusy
WVCHA bvsTransmits a chain of waveforms gpioWaveChain
WVCLRClear all waveforms gpioWaveClear
WVCRECreate a waveform gpioWaveCreate
WVDEL widDelete selected waveform gpioWaveDelete
WVHLTStop waveform gpioWaveTxStop
WVNEWInitialise a new waveform gpioWaveAddNew
WVSC wsGet waveform DMA CB stats gpioWaveGetCbs
WVSM wsGet waveform time stats gpioWaveGetMicros
WVSP wsGet waveform pulse stats gpioWaveGetPulses
WVTATReturns the current transmitting waveform gpioWaveTxAt
WVTX widTransmits waveform once gpioWaveTxSend
WVTXM wid wmdeTransmits waveform using mode gpioWaveTxSend
WVTXR widTransmits waveform repeatedly gpioWaveTxSend

Commands

BC1 bits - Clear specified GPIO in bank 1

This command clears (sets low) the GPIO specified by bits in bank 1. Bank 1 consists of GPIO 0-31.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs bc1 0x400010 # clear GPIO 4 (1<<4) and 22 (1<<22)

$ pigs bc1 32 # clear GPIO 5 (1<<5)
-42
ERROR: no permission to update one or more GPIO

BC2 bits - Clear specified GPIO in bank 2

This command clears (sets low) the GPIO specified by bits in bank 2. Bank 2 consists of GPIO 32-53.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs bc2 0x8000 # clear GPIO 47 (activity LED on A+/B+/Pi2/Pi3)

$ pigs bc2 1 # clear GPIO 32 (first in bank 2)
-42
ERROR: no permission to update one or more GPIO

BI2CC sda - Close bit bang I2C

This command signals that bit banging I2C on sda (and scl) is no longer required.

Example

$ pigs bi2cc 5

BI2CO sda scl b - Open bit bang I2C

This command signals that GPIO sda and scl are to be used for bit banging I2C at b baud.

Bit banging I2C allows for certain operations which are not possible with the standard I2C driver.

o baud rates as low as 50
o repeated starts
o clock stretching
o I2C on any pair of spare GPIO

The baud rate may be between 50 and 500000 bits per second.

The GPIO used for SDA and SCL must have pull-ups to 3V3 connected. As a guide the hardware pull-ups on pins 3 and 5 are 1k8 in value.

BI2CZ sda bvs - I2C bit bang multiple transactions

This function executes a sequence of bit banged I2C operations. The operations to be performed are specified by the contents of bvs which contains the concatenated command codes and associated data.

The following command codes are supported:

NameCmd & DataMeaning
End0No more commands
Escape1Next P is two bytes
Start2Start condition
Stop3Stop condition
Address4 PSet I2C address to P
Flags5 lsb msbSet I2C flags to lsb + (msb << 8)
Read6 PRead P bytes of data
Write7 P ...Write P bytes of data


The address, read, and write commands take a parameter P. Normally P is one byte (0-255). If the command is preceded by the Escape command then P is two bytes (0-65535, least significant byte first).

The address and flags default to 0. The address and flags maintain their previous value until updated.

No flags are currently defined.

Example

Set address 0x53
start, write 0x32, (re)start, read 6 bytes, stop
Set address 0x1E
start, write 0x03, (re)start, read 6 bytes, stop
Set address 0x68
start, write 0x1B, (re)start, read 8 bytes, stop
End

0x04 0x53
0x02 0x07 0x01 0x32   0x02 0x06 0x06 0x03

0x04 0x1E
0x02 0x07 0x01 0x03   0x02 0x06 0x06 0x03

0x04 0x68
0x02 0x07 0x01 0x1B   0x02 0x06 0x08 0x03

0x00

BR1 - Read bank 1 GPIO

This command read GPIO 0-31 (bank 1) and returns the levels as a 32-bit hexadecimal value.

Example

$ pigs br1
1001C1CF

BR2 - Read bank 2 GPIO

This command read GPIO 32-53 (bank 2) and returns the levels as a 32-bit hexadecimal value.

Example

$ pigs br2
003F0000

BS1 bits - Set specified GPIO in bank 1

This command sets (sets high) the GPIO specified by bits in bank 1. Bank 1 consists of GPIO 0-31.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs bs1 16 # set GPIO 4 (1<<4)

$ pigs bs1 1 # set GPIO 1 (1<<0)
-42
ERROR: no permission to update one or more GPIO

BS2 bits - Set specified GPIO in bank 2

This command sets (sets high) the GPIO specified by bits in bank 2. Bank 2 consists of GPIO 32-53.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs bs2 0x40 # set GPIO 38 (enable high current mode A+/B+/Pi2/Pi3)

$ pigs bs2 1 # set GPIO 32 (first in bank 2)
-42
ERROR: no permission to update one or more GPIO

CF1 uvs - Custom function 1

This command calls a user customised function. The meaning of any paramaters and the returned value is defined by the customiser.

CF2 uvs - Custom function 2

This command calls a user customised function. The meaning of any paramaters and the returned value is defined by the customiser.

CGI - Configuration get internals

This command returns the value of the internal library configuration settings.

CSI v - Configuration set internals

This command sets the value of the internal library configuration settings to v.

FC h - Close file handle

This command closes a file handle h previously opened with FO.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs fc 0 # First close okay.

$ pigs fc 0 # Second fails.
-25
ERROR: unknown handle

FG u stdy - Set a glitch filter on a GPIO

Level changes on the GPIO u are not reported unless the level has been stable for at least stdy microseconds. The level is then reported. Level changes of less than stdy microseconds are ignored.

Note, each (stable) edge will be timestamped stdy microseconds after it was first detected.

Example

$ pigs fg 4 250

$ pigs fg 4 1000000
-125
ERROR: bad filter parameter

FL pat num - List files which match pattern

This command returns a list of the files matching pat. Up to num bytes may be returned.

Upon success the count of returned bytes followed by the matching files is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

A newline (0x0a) character separates each file name.

Only files which have a matching entry in /opt/pigpio/access may be listed.

Suppose /opt/pigpio/access contains

/sys/bus/w1/devices/28*/w1_slave r

Example

$ pigs -a fl "/sys/bus/w1/devices/28*/w1_slave" 5000
90 /sys/bus/w1/devices/28-000005d34cd2/w1_slave
/sys/bus/w1/devices/28-001414abbeff/w1_slave

$ pigs -a fl "/sys/bus/*" 5000
ERROR: no permission to access file
-137

FN u stdy actv - Set a noise filter on a GPIO

Level changes on the GPIO u are ignored until a level which has been stable for stdy microseconds is detected. Level changes on the GPIO are then reported for actv microseconds after which the process repeats.

Note, level changes before and after the active period may be reported. Your software must be designed to cope with such reports.

Example

$ pigs fn 7 250 1000

$ pigs fn 7 2500000 1000
-125
ERROR: bad filter parameter

FO file mode - Open a file in mode

This function returns a handle to a file file opened in a specified mode mode.

Upon success a handle (>=0) is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

File

A file may only be opened if permission is granted by an entry in /opt/pigpio/access. This is intended to allow remote access to files in a more or less controlled manner.

Each entry in /opt/pigpio/access takes the form of a file path which may contain wildcards followed by a single letter permission. The permission may be R for read, W for write, U for read/write, and N for no access.

Where more than one entry matches a file the most specific rule applies. If no entry matches a file then access is denied.

Suppose /opt/pigpio/access contains the following entries

/home/* n
/home/pi/shared/dir_1/* w
/home/pi/shared/dir_2/* r
/home/pi/shared/dir_3/* u
/home/pi/shared/dir_1/file.txt n


Files may be written in directory dir_1 with the exception of file.txt.

Files may be read in directory dir_2.

Files may be read and written in directory dir_3.

If a directory allows read, write, or read/write access then files may be created in that directory.

In an attempt to prevent risky permissions the following paths are ignored in /opt/pigpio/access.

a path containing ..
a path containing only wildcards (*?)
a path containing less than two non-wildcard parts


Mode

The mode may have the following values.

ValueMeaning
READ1open file for reading
WRITE2open file for writing
RW3open file for reading and writing


The following values may be or'd into the mode.

ValueMeaning
APPEND4All writes append data to the end of the file
CREATE8The file is created if it doesn't exist
TRUNC16The file is truncated


Newly created files are owned by root with permissions owner read and write.

Example

$ ls /ram/*.c
/ram/command.c      /ram/pigpiod.c  /ram/pigs.c
/ram/x_pigpiod_if.c /ram/pig2vcd.c  /ram/pigpiod_if2.c
/ram/x_pigpio.c     /ram/x_repeat.c /ram/pigpio.c
/ram/pigpiod_if.c   /ram/x_pigpiod_if2.c

# assumes /opt/pigpio/access contains the following line
# /ram/*.c r

$ pigs fo /ram/pigpio.c 1
0

$ pigs fo /ram/new.c 1
-128
ERROR: file open failed

$ pigs fo /ram/new.c 9
1

$ ls /ram/*.c -l
-rw-r--r-- 1 joan joan  42923 Jul 10 11:22 /ram/command.c
-rw------- 1 root root      0 Jul 10 16:54 /ram/new.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 joan joan   2971 Jul 10 11:22 /ram/pig2vcd.c
-rw------- 1 joan joan 296235 Jul 10 11:22 /ram/pigpio.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 joan joan   9266 Jul 10 11:22 /ram/pigpiod.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 joan joan  37331 Jul 10 11:22 /ram/pigpiod_if2.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 joan joan  33088 Jul 10 11:22 /ram/pigpiod_if.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 joan joan   7990 Jul 10 11:22 /ram/pigs.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 joan joan  19970 Jul 10 11:22 /ram/x_pigpio.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 joan joan  20804 Jul 10 11:22 /ram/x_pigpiod_if2.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 joan joan  19844 Jul 10 11:22 /ram/x_pigpiod_if.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 joan joan  19907 Jul 10 11:22 /ram/x_repeat.c

FR h num - Read bytes from file handle

This command returns up to num bytes of data read from the file associated with handle h.

Upon success the count of returned bytes followed by the bytes themselves is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs fr 0 10
5 48 49 128 144 255

$ pigs fr 0 10
0

FS h num from - Seek to file handle position

This command seeks to a position within the file associated with handle h.

The number of bytes to move is num. Positive offsets move forward, negative offsets backwards. The move start position is determined by from as follows.

From
0start
1current position
2end


Upon success the new byte position within the file (>=0) is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs fs 0 0 0 # Seek to start of file plus 200
200

$ pigs fs 0 0 1 # Return current position
200

$ pigs fs 0 0 2 # Seek to end of file, return size
296235

FW h bvs - Write bytes to file handle

This command writes bytes bvs to the file associated with handle h.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs fw 0 23 45 67 89

GDC u - Get GPIO PWM dutycycle

This command returns the PWM dutycycle in use on GPIO u.

Upon success the dutycycle is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

For normal PWM the dutycycle will be out of the defined range for the GPIO (see PRG).

If a hardware clock is active on the GPIO the reported dutycycle will be 500000 (500k) out of 1000000 (1M).

If hardware PWM is active on the GPIO the reported dutycycle will be out of a 1000000 (1M).

Example

$ pigs p 4 129
$ pigs gdc 4
129

pigs gdc 5
-92
ERROR: GPIO is not in use for PWM

GPW u - Get GPIO servo pulsewidth

This command returns the servo pulsewidth in use on GPIO u.

Upon success the servo pulsewidth is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs s 4 1235
$ pigs gpw 4
1235

$ pigs gpw 9
-93
ERROR: GPIO is not in use for servo pulses

H/HELP - Display command help

This command displays a brief list of the commands and their parameters.

Example

$ pigs h

$ pigs help

HC g cf - Set hardware clock frequency

This command sets the hardware clock associated with GPIO g to frequency cf. Frequencies above 30MHz are unlikely to work.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs hc 4 5000 # start a 5 KHz clock on GPIO 4 (clock 0)

$ pigs hc 5 5000000 # start a 5 MHz clcok on GPIO 5 (clock 1)
-99
ERROR: need password to use hardware clock 1


The same clock is available on multiple GPIO. The latest frequency setting will be used by all GPIO which share a clock.

The GPIO must be one of the following.

4clock 0All models
5clock 1All models but A and B (reserved for system use)
6clock 2All models but A and B
20clock 0All models but A and B
21clock 1All models but A and B (Rev. 2) (reserved for system use)


32clock 0Compute module only
34clock 0Compute module only
42clock 1Compute module only (reserved for system use)
43clock 2Compute module only
44clock 1Compute module only (reserved for system use)


Access to clock 1 is protected by a password as its use will likely crash the Pi. The password is given by or'ing 0x5A000000 with the GPIO number.

HP g pf pdc - Set hardware PWM frequency and dutycycle

This command sets the hardware PWM associated with GPIO g to frequency pf with dutycycle pdc. Frequencies above 30MHz are unlikely to work.

NOTE: Any waveform started by WVTX, WVTXR, or WVCHA will be cancelled.

This function is only valid if the pigpio main clock is PCM. The main clock defaults to PCM but may be overridden when the pigpio daemon is started (option -t).

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

$ pigs hp 18 100 800000 # 80% dutycycle

$ pigs hp 19 100 200000 # 20% dutycycle

$ pigs hp 19 125000001 100000
-96
ERROR: hardware PWM frequency not 1-125M


The same PWM channel is available on multiple GPIO. The latest frequency and dutycycle setting will be used by all GPIO which share a PWM channel.

The GPIO must be one of the following.

12PWM channel 0All models but A and B
13PWM channel 1All models but A and B
18PWM channel 0All models
19PWM channel 1All models but A and B


40PWM channel 0Compute module only
41PWM channel 1Compute module only
45PWM channel 1Compute module only
52PWM channel 0Compute module only
53PWM channel 1Compute module only


The actual number of steps beween off and fully on is the integral part of 250 million divided by pf.

The actual frequency set is 250 million / steps.

There will only be a million steps for a pf of 250. Lower frequencies will have more steps and higher frequencies will have fewer steps. pdc is automatically scaled to take this into account.

HWVER - Get hardware version

This command returns the hardware revision of the Pi.

The hardware revision is found in the last 4 characters on the revision line of /proc/cpuinfo.

If the hardware revision can not be found or is not a valid hexadecimal number the command returns 0.

The revision number can be used to determine the assignment of GPIO to pins (see g).

There are currently three types of board.

Type 1 boards have hardware revision numbers of 2 and 3.

Type 2 boards have hardware revision numbers of 4, 5, 6, and 15.

Type 3 boards have hardware revision numbers of 16 or greater.

for "Revision : 0002" the command returns 2.

for "Revision : 000f" the command returns 15.

for "Revision : 000g" the command returns 0.

Example

$ pigs hwver # On a B+
16

I2CC h - Close I2C handle

This command closes an I2C handle h previously opened with I2CO.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2cc 0 # First close okay.

$ pigs i2cc 0 # Second fails.
-25
ERROR: unknown handle

I2CO ib id if - Open I2C bus and device with flags

This command returns a handle to access device id on I2C bus ib. The device is opened with flags if.

Physically buses 0 and 1 are available on the Pi. Higher numbered buses will be available if a kernel supported bus multiplexor is being used.

No flags are currently defined. The parameter if should be 0.

Upon success the next free handle (>=0) is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2co 1 0x70 0 # Bus 1, device 0x70, flags 0.
0

$ pigs i2co 1 0x53 0 # Bus 1, device 0x53, flags 0.
1

I2CPC h r wv - smb Process Call: exchange register with word

This command writes wv to register r of the I2C device associated with handle h and returns a 16-bit word read from the device.

Upon success a value between 0 and 65535 will be returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2cpc 0 37 43210
39933

$ pigs i2cpc 0 256 43210
ERROR: bad i2c/spi/ser parameter
-81

I2CPK h r bvs - smb Block Process Call: exchange data bytes with register

This command writes the data bytes bvs to register r of the I2C device associated with handle h and returns a device specific number of bytes.

Upon success the count of returned bytes followed by the bytes themselves is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2cpk 0 0 0x11 0x12
6 0 0 0 0 0 0

I2CRB h r - smb Read Byte Data: read byte from register

This command returns a single byte read from register r of the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success a value between 0 and 255 will be returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2crb 0 0
6

I2CRD h num - i2c Read bytes

This command returns num bytes read from the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success the count of returned bytes followed by the bytes themselves is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

This command operates on the raw I2C device. The maximum value of the parameter num is dependent on the I2C drivers and the device itself. pigs imposes a limit of about 8000 bytes.

Example

$ pigs i2crd 0 16
16 6 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 78

I2CRI h r num - smb Read I2C Block Data: read bytes from register

This command returns num bytes from register r of the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success the count of returned bytes followed by the bytes themselves is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The parameter num may be 1-32.

Example

$ pigs i2cri 0 0 16
16 237 155 155 155 155 155 155 155 155 155 155 155 155 155 155 155

I2CRK h r - smb Read Block Data: read data from register

This command returns between 1 and 32 bytes read from register r of the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success the count of returned bytes followed by the bytes themselves is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The number of bytes of returned data is specific to the device and register.

Example

$ pigs i2crk 0 0
6 0 0 0 0 0 0

$ pigs i2crk 0 1
24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 120 222 105 215 128 87 195 217 0 0 0 0

I2CRS h - smb Read Byte: read byte

This command returns a single byte read from the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success a value between 0 and 255 will be returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2crs 0
0

I2CRW h r - smb Read Word Data: read word from register

This command returns a single 16 bit word read from register r of the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success a value between 0 and 65535 will be returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2crw 0 0
6150

I2CWB h r bv - smb Write Byte Data: write byte to register

This command writes a single byte bv to register r of the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2cwb 0 10 0x54

I2CWD h bvs - i2c Write data

This command writes a block of bytes bvs to the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The number of bytes which may be written in one transaction is dependent on the I2C drivers and the device itself. pigs imposes a limit of about 500 bytes.

This command operates on the raw I2C device.

Example

$ pigs i2cwd 0 0x01 0x02 0x03 0x04

I2CWI h r bvs - smb Write I2C Block Data

This command writes between 1 and 32 bytes bvs to register r of the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2cwi 0 4 0x01 0x04 0xc0

I2CWK h r bvs - smb Write Block Data: write data to register

This command writes between 1 and 32 bytes bvs to register r of the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

pigs i2cwk 0 4 0x01 0x04 0xc0

I2CWQ h bit - smb Write Quick: write bit

This command writes a single bit to the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2cwq 0 1

I2CWS h bv - smb Write Byte: write byte

This command writes a single byte bv to the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2cws 0 0x12

$ pigs i2cws 0 0xff
-82
ERROR: I2C write failed

I2CWW h r wv - smb Write Word Data: write word to register

This command writes a single 16 bit word wv to register r of the I2C device associated with handle h.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs i2cww 0 0 0xffff

I2CZ h bvs - Performs multiple I2C transactions

This command executes a sequence of I2C operations. The operations to be performed are specified by the contents of bvs which contains the concatenated command codes and associated data.

The following command codes are supported:

NameCmd & DataMeaning
End0No more commands
Escape1Next P is two bytes
On2Switch combined flag on
Off3Switch combined flag off
Address4 PSet I2C address to P
Flags5 lsb msbSet I2C flags to lsb + (msb << 8)
Read6 PRead P bytes of data
Write7 P ...Write P bytes of data


The address, read, and write commands take a parameter P. Normally P is one byte (0-255). If the command is preceded by the Escape command then P is two bytes (0-65535, least significant byte first).

The address defaults to that associated with the handle h. The flags default to 0. The address and flags maintain their previous value until updated.

Example

Set address 0x53, write 0x32, read 6 bytes
Set address 0x1E, write 0x03, read 6 bytes
Set address 0x68, write 0x1B, read 8 bytes
End

0x04 0x53   0x07 0x01 0x32   0x06 0x06
0x04 0x1E   0x07 0x01 0x03   0x06 0x06
0x04 0x68   0x07 0x01 0x1B   0x06 0x08
0x00

M/MODES g m - Set GPIO mode

This command sets GPIO g to mode m, typically input (read) or output (write).

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Each GPIO can be configured to be in one of 8 different modes. The modes are named Input, Output, ALT0, ALT1, ALT2, ALT3, ALT4, and ALT5.

To set the mode use the code for the mode.

ModeInputOutputALT0ALT1ALT2ALT3ALT4ALT5
CodeRW012345


Example

$ pigs m 4 r # Input (read)
$ pigs m 4 w # Output (write)
$ pigs m 4 0 # ALT 0
$ pigs m 4 5 # ALT 5

MG/MODEG g - Get GPIO mode

This command returns the current mode of GPIO g.

Upon success the value of the GPIO mode is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Value01234567
ModeInputOutputALT5ALT4ALT0ALT1ALT2ALT3


Example

$ pigs mg 4
1

MICS v - Microseconds delay

This command delays execution for v microseconds.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The main use of this command is expected to be within Scripts.

Example

$ pigs mics 20 # Delay 20 microseconds.
$ pigs mics 1000000 # Delay 1 second.

$ pigs mics 2000000
-64
ERROR: bad MICS delay (too large)

MILS v - Milliseconds delay

This command delays execution for v milliseconds.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs mils 2000 # Delay 2 seconds.

$ pigs mils 61000
-65
ERROR: bad MILS delay (too large)

NB h bits - Start notification

This command starts notifications on handle h returned by a prior call to NO.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The notification gets state changes for each GPIO specified by bits.

Example

$ pigs nb 0 -1 # Shorthand for GPIO 0-31.
$ pigs nb 0 0xf0 # Get notifications for GPIO 4-7.

$ pigs nb 1 0xf
-25
ERROR: unknown handle

NC h - Close notification

This command stops notifications on handle h returned by a prior call to NO and releases the handle for reuse.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs nc 0 # First call succeeds.

$ pigs nc 1 # Second call fails.
-25
ERROR: unknown handle

NO - Request a notification

This command requests a free notification handle.

A notification is a method for being notified of GPIO state changes via a pipe.

Upon success the command returns a handle greater than or equal to zero. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Notifications for handle x will be available at the pipe named /dev/pigpiox (where x is the handle number).

E.g. if the command returns 15 then the notifications must be read from /dev/pigpio15.

Example

$ pigs no
0

NP h - Pause notification

This command pauses notifications on handle h returned by a prior call to NO.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Notifications for the handle are suspended until a new NB command is given for the handle.

Example

$ pigs np 0

P/PWM u v - Set GPIO PWM value

This command starts PWM on GPIO u with dutycycle v. The dutycycle varies from 0 (off) to range (fully on). The range defaults to 255.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

This and the servo functionality use the DMA and PWM or PCM peripherals to control and schedule the pulsewidths and dutycycles.

The PRS command may be used to change the default range of 255.

Example

$ pigs p 4 64  # Start PWM on GPIO 4 with 25% dutycycle
$ pigs p 4 128 # 50%
$ pigs p 4 192 # 75%
$ pigs p 4 255 # 100%

PADG pad - Get pad drive strength

This command gets the pad drive strength padma in mA.

Returns the pad drive strength if OK. On error a negative status code will be returned.

PadGPIO
00-27
128-45
246-53


Example

$ pigs padg 0
8
$ pigs pads 0 16
$ pigs padg 0
16
pigs padg 3
-126
ERROR: bad pad number

PADS pad padma - Set pad drive strength

This command sets the pad drive strength padma in mA.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

PadGPIO
00-27
128-45
246-53


Example

$ pigs pads 0 16
$ pigs padg 0
16
$ pigs pads 0 17
-127
ERROR: bad pad drive strength

PARSE t - Validate script

Validates the text t of a script without storing the script.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a list of detected script errors will be given.

See Scripts.

This command may be used to find script syntax faults.

Example

$ pigs parse tag 100 w 22 1 mils 200 w 22 0 mils 800 jmp 100

$ pigs parse tag 0 w 22 1 mills 50 w 22 0 dcr p10 jp 99
Unknown command: mills
Unknown command: 50
Bad parameter to dcr
Can't resolve tag 99

PFG u - Get GPIO PWM frequency

This command returns the PWM frequency in Hz used for GPIO u.

Upon success the PWM frequency is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

For normal PWM the frequency will be that defined for the GPIO by PFS.

If a hardware clock is active on the GPIO the reported frequency will be that set by HC.

If hardware PWM is active on the GPIO the reported frequency will be that set by HP.

Example

$ pigs pfg 4
800

$ pigs pfg 34
ERROR: GPIO not 0-31
-2

PFS u v - Set GPIO PWM frequency

This command sets the PWM frequency v to be used for GPIO u.

The numerically closest frequency to v will be selected.

Upon success the new frequency is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

If PWM is currently active on the GPIO it will be switched off and then back on at the new frequency.

Each GPIO can be independently set to one of 18 different PWM frequencies.

The selectable frequencies depend upon the sample rate which may be 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, or 10 microseconds (default 5). The sample rate is set when the pigpio daemon is started.

The frequencies for each sample rate are:

                       Hertz

       1: 40000 20000 10000 8000 5000 4000 2500 2000 1600
           1250  1000   800  500  400  250  200  100   50

       2: 20000 10000  5000 4000 2500 2000 1250 1000  800
            625   500   400  250  200  125  100   50   25

       4: 10000  5000  2500 2000 1250 1000  625  500  400
            313   250   200  125  100   63   50   25   13
sample
 rate
 (us)  5:  8000  4000  2000 1600 1000  800  500  400  320
            250   200   160  100   80   50   40   20   10

       8:  5000  2500  1250 1000  625  500  313  250  200
            156   125   100   63   50   31   25   13    6

      10:  4000  2000  1000  800  500  400  250  200  160
            125   100    80   50   40   25   20   10    5


Example

pigs pfs 4 0 # 0 selects the lowest frequency.
10

$ pigs pfs 4 1000 # Set 1000Hz PWM.
1000

$ pigs pfs 4 100000 # Very big number selects the highest frequency.
8000

PIGPV - Get pigpio library version

This command returns the pigpio library version.

Example

$ pigs pigpv
17

PRG u - Get GPIO PWM range

This command returns the dutycycle range for GPIO u.

Upon success the range is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

If a hardware clock or hardware PWM is active on the GPIO the reported range will be 1000000 (1M).

Example

$ pigs prg 4
255

PROC t - Store script

This command stores a script t for later execution.

If the script is valid a script id (>=0) is returned which is passed to the other script commands. On error a negative status code will be returned.

See Scripts.

Example

$ pigs proc tag 123 w 4 0 mils 200 w 4 1 mils 300 dcr p0 jp 123
0

$ pigs proc tag 123 w 4 0 mils 5 w 4 1 mils 5 jmp 12
ERROR: script has unresolved tag
-63

PROCD sid - Delete script

This command deletes script sid.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

See Scripts.

Example

$ pigs procd 1

$ pigs procd 1
ERROR: unknown script id
-48

PROCP sid - Get script status and parameters

This command returns the status of script sid as well as the current value of its 10 parameters.

Upon success the script status and parameters are returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The script status may be one of

0being initialised
1halted
2running
3waiting
4failed


See Scripts.

Example

$ pigs procp 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

PROCR sid pars - Run script

This command runs stored script sid passing it up to 10 optional parameters.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

See Scripts.

Example

$ pigs proc tag 123 w 4 0 mils 200 w 4 1 mils 300 dcr p0 jp 123
0

$ pigs procr 0 50 # Run script 0 with parameter 0 of 50.

$ pigs procp 0
2 44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$ pigs procp 0
2 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$ pigs procp 0
2 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$ pigs procp 0
2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$ pigs procp 0
2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$ pigs procp 0
1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

PROCS sid - Stop script

This command stops a running script sid.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

See Scripts.

Example

$ pigs procs 0

$ pigs procs 1
-48
ERROR: unknown script id

PRRG u - Get GPIO PWM real range

This command returns the real underlying range used by GPIO u.

If a hardware clock is active on the GPIO the reported real range will be 1000000 (1M).

If hardware PWM is active on the GPIO the reported real range will be approximately 250M divided by the set PWM frequency.

On error a negative status code will be returned.

See PRS.

Example

$ pigs prrg 17
250

$ pigs pfs 17 0
10
$ pigs prrg 17
20000

$ pigs pfs 17 100000
8000
$ pigs prrg 17
25

PRS u v - Set GPIO PWM range

This command sets the dutycycle range v to be used for GPIO u. Subsequent uses of command P/PWM will use a dutycycle between 0 (off) and v (fully on).

Upon success the real underlying range used by the GPIO is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

If PWM is currently active on the GPIO its dutycycle will be scaled to reflect the new range.

The real range, the number of steps between fully off and fully on for each frequency, is given in the following table.

#1#2#3#4#5#6#7#8#9
2550100125200250400500625
#10#11#12#13#14#15#16#17#18
8001000125020002500400050001000020000


The real value set by PRS is (dutycycle * real range) / range.

See PRRG

Example

$ pigs prs 18 1000
250

PUD g p - Set GPIO pull up/down

This command sets the internal pull/up down for GPIO g to mode p.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The mode may be pull-down (D), pull-up (U), or off (O).

Example

$ pigs pud 4 d # Set pull-down on GPIO 4.
$ pigs pud 4 u # Set pull-up on GPIO 4.
$ pigs pud 4 o # No pull-up/down on GPIO 4.

R/READ g - Read GPIO level

This reads the current level of GPIO g.

Upon success the current level is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs r 17 # Get level of GPIO 17.
0

$ pigs r 4 # Get level of GPIO 4.
1

S/SERVO u v - Set GPIO servo pulsewidth

This command starts servo pulses of v microseconds on GPIO u.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The servo pulsewidth may be 0 (off), 500 (most anti-clockwise) to 2500 (most clockwise).

The range supported by servos varies and should probably be determined by experiment. Generally values between 1000-2000 should be safe. A value of 1500 should always be safe and represents the mid-point of rotation.

You can DAMAGE a servo if you command it to move beyond its limits.

Example

$ pigs SERVO 17 1500


This example causes an on pulse of 1500 microseconds duration to be transmitted on GPIO 17 at a rate of 50 times per second.

This will command a servo connected to GPIO 17 to rotate to its mid-point.

Example

pigs s 17 0 # Switch servo pulses off.

SERC h - Close serial handle

This command closes a serial handle h previously opened with SERO.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs serc 0 # First close okay.

$ pigs serc 0 # Second close gives error.
-25
ERROR: unknown handle

SERDA h - Check for serial data ready to read

This command returns the number of bytes of data available to be read from the serial device associated with handle h.

Upon success the count of bytes available to be read is returned (which may be 0). On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs serda 0
0

SERO dev b sef - Open serial device dev at baud b with flags

This command opens the serial dev at b bits per second.

No flags are currently defined. sef should be set to zero.

Upon success a handle (>=0) is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The device name must start with /dev/tty or /dev/serial.

The baud rate must be one of 50, 75, 110, 134, 150, 200, 300, 600, 1200, 1800, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200, or 230400.

Example

$ pigs sero /dev/ttyAMA0 9600 0
0

$ pigs sero /dev/tty1 38400 0
1

SERR h num - Read bytes from serial handle

This command returns up to num bytes of data read from the serial device associated with handle h.

Upon success the count of returned bytes followed by the bytes themselves is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs serr 0 10
5 48 49 128 144 255

$ pigs serr 0 10
0

SERRB - Read byte from serial handle

This command returns a byte of data read from the serial device associated with handle h.

Upon success a number between 0 and 255 is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs serrb 0
23
$ pigs serrb 0
45

SERW h bvs - Write bytes to serial handle

This command writes bytes bvs to the serial device associated with handle h.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs serw 0 23 45 67 89

SERWB h bv - Write byte to serial handle

This command writes a single byte bv to the serial device associated with handle h.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs serwb 0 23
$ pigs serwb 0 0xf0

SHELL name str - Execute a shell command

This command uses the system call to execute a shell script name with the given string str as its parameter.

The exit status of the system call is returned if OK, otherwise PI_BAD_SHELL_STATUS.

name must exist in /opt/pigpio/cgi and must be executable.

The returned exit status is normally 256 times that set by the shell script exit function. If the script can't be found 32512 will be returned.

The following table gives some example returned statuses.

Script exit statusReturned system call status
1256
51280
102560
20051200
script not found32512


Example

# pass two parameters, hello and world
$ pigs shell scr1 hello world
256

# pass three parameters, hello, string with spaces, and world
$ pigs shell scr1 "hello 'string with spaces' world"
256

# pass one parameter, hello string with spaces world
$ pigs shell scr1 "\"hello string with spaces world\""
256

# non-existent script
$ pigs shell scr78 par1
32512

SLR u num - Read bit bang serial data from GPIO

This command returns up to num bytes of bit bang serial data read from GPIO u.

Upon success the count of returned bytes followed by the bytes themselves is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The GPIO u should have been initialised with the SLRO command.

The bytes returned for each character depend upon the number of data bits db specified in the SLRO command.

For db 1-8 there will be one byte per character.
For db 9-16 there will be two bytes per character.
For db 17-32 there will be four bytes per character.

Example

$ pigs slr 15 20
6 1 0 23 45 89 0

SLRC u - Close GPIO for bit bang serial data

This command closes GPIO u for reading bit bang serial data.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs slrc 23

$ pigs slrc 23
-38
ERROR: no serial read in progress on GPIO

SLRI u v - Sets bit bang serial data logic levels

This command sets the logic level for reading bit bang serial data on GPIO u.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The invert parameter v is 1 for inverted signal, 0 for normal.

Example

$ pigs slri 17 1 # invert logic on GPIO 17

$ pigs slri 23 0 # use normal logic on GPIO 23

SLRO u b db - Open GPIO for bit bang serial data

This command opens GPIO u for reading bit bang serial data at b baud and db data bits.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The baud rate may be between 50 and 250000 bits per second.

The received data is held in a cyclic buffer.

It is the user's responsibility to read the data (with SLR) in a timely fashion.

Example

$ pigs slro 23 19200 8

$ pigs slro 23 19200 8
-50
ERROR: GPIO already in use

SPIC h - SPI close handle

This command closes the SPI handle h returned by a prior call to SPIO.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs spic 1

$ pigs spic 1
-25
ERROR: unknown handle

SPIO c b spf - SPI open channel at baud b with flags

This command returns a handle to a SPI device on channel c.

Data will be transferred at b bits per second. The flags spf may be used to modify the default behaviour of 4-wire operation, mode 0, active low chip select.

Speeds between 32kbps and 125Mbps are allowed. Speeds above 30Mbps are unlikely to work.

An auxiliary SPI device is available on all models but the A and B and may be selected by setting the A bit in the flags. The auxiliary device has 3 chip selects and a selectable word size in bits.

The flags consists of the least significant 22 bits.

21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  0
 b  b  b  b  b  b  R  T  n  n  n  n  W  A u2 u1 u0 p2 p1 p0  m  m


mm defines the SPI mode.

Warning: modes 1 and 3 do not appear to work on the auxiliary device.

Mode POL PHA
 0    0   0
 1    0   1
 2    1   0
 3    1   1


px is 0 if CEx is active low (default) and 1 for active high.

ux is 0 if the CEx GPIO is reserved for SPI (default) and 1 otherwise.

A is 0 for the standard SPI device, 1 for the auxiliary SPI.

W is 0 if the device is not 3-wire, 1 if the device is 3-wire. Standard SPI device only.

nnnn defines the number of bytes (0-15) to write before switching the MOSI line to MISO to read data. This field is ignored if W is not set. Standard SPI device only.

T is 1 if the least significant bit is transmitted on MOSI first, the default (0) shifts the most significant bit out first. Auxiliary SPI device only.

R is 1 if the least significant bit is received on MISO first, the default (0) receives the most significant bit first. Auxiliary SPI device only.

bbbbbb defines the word size in bits (0-32). The default (0) sets 8 bits per word. Auxiliary SPI device only.

The SPIR, SPIW, and SPIX commands transfer data packed into 1, 2, or 4 bytes according to the word size in bits.

For bits 1-8 there will be one byte per character.
For bits 9-16 there will be two bytes per character.
For bits 17-32 there will be four bytes per character.

E.g. 32 12-bit words will be transferred in 64 bytes.

The other bits in flags should be set to zero.

Upon success a handle (>=0) is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs spio 0 100000 3 # Open channel 0 at 100kbps in mode 3.
0

$ pigs spio 0 32000 256 # Open channel 0 of auxiliary spi at 32kbps.
1

SPIR h num - SPI read bytes from handle

This command returns num bytes read from the SPI device associated with handle h.

Upon success the count of returned bytes followed by the bytes themselves is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs spir 0 10 # Read 10 bytes from the SPI device.
10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

SPIW h bvs - SPI write bytes to handle

This command writes bytes bvs to the SPI device associated with handle h.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs spiw 0 0x22 0x33 0xcc 0xff

SPIX h bvs - SPI transfer bytes to handle

This command writes bytes bvs to the SPI device associated with handle h. It returns the same number of bytes read from the device.

Upon success the count of returned bytes followed by the bytes themselves is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs spix 0 0x22 0x33 0xcc 0xff
4 0 0 0 0

T/TICK - Get current tick

This command returns the current system tick.

Tick is the number of microseconds since system boot.

As tick is an unsigned 32 bit quantity it wraps around after 2^32 microseconds, which is approximately 1 hour 12 minutes.

Example

$ pigs t mils 1000 t
3691823946
3692833987

TRIG u pl L - Send a trigger pulse

This command sends a trigger pulse of pl microseconds at level L to GPIO u.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The GPIO is set to not level at the end of the pulse.

Example

$ pigs trig 4 10 1

$ pigs trig 4 51 1
-46
ERROR: trigger pulse > 50 microseconds

W/WRITE g L - Write GPIO level

This command sets GPIO g to level L. The level may be 0 (low, off, clear) or 1 (high, on, set).

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs w 23 0
$ pigs w 23 1

$ pigs w 23 2
-5
ERROR: level not 0-1

WDOG u v - Set GPIO watchdog

This command sets a watchdog of v milliseconds on GPIO u.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The watchdog is nominally in milliseconds.

One watchdog may be registered per GPIO.

The watchdog may be cancelled by setting timeout to 0.

If no level change has been detected for the GPIO for timeout milliseconds:-

any notification for the GPIO has a report written to the fifo with the flags set to indicate a watchdog timeout.

Example

$ pigs wdog 23 90000
-15
ERROR: timeout not 0-60000

$ pigs wdog 23 9000


This example causes a report to be written to any notification pipes listening on GPIO 23 whenever GPIO 23 changes state or approximately every 9000 ms.

WVAG trips - Add generic pulses to waveform

This command adds 1 one or more triplets trips of GPIO on, GPIO off, delay to the existing waveform (if any).

Upon success the total number of pulses in the waveform so far is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The triplets will be added at the start of the existing waveform. If they are to start offset from the start then the first triplet should consist solely of a delay i.e. 0 0 offset.

Example

$ pigs wvag 0x10 0x80 1000 0x80 0x10 9000
2

$ pigs wvag 0 0 10000 0x10 0x80 1000 0x80 0x10 9000
4

WVAS u b db sb o bvs - Add serial data to waveform

This command adds a waveform representing serial data bvs to GPIO u at b baud to the existing waveform (if any). The serial data starts o microseconds from the start of the waveform.

Upon success the total number of pulses in the waveform so far is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The serial data is formatted as one start bit, db data bits, and sb/2 stop bits.

The baud rate may be between 50 and 1000000 bits per second.

It is legal to add serial data streams with different baud rates to the same waveform.

The bytes required for each character depend upon db.

For db 1-8 there will be one byte per character.
For db 9-16 there will be two bytes per character.
For db 17-32 there will be four bytes per character.

Example

$ pigs wvas 4 9600 8 2 0 0x30 0x31 0x32 0x33
23

$ pigs wvas 7 38400 8 2 0 0x41 0x42
35

WVTAT - Returns the current transmitting waveform

This command returns the id of the waveform currently being transmitted.

Returns the waveform id or one of the following special values:

9998 - transmitted wave not found
9999 - no wave being transmitted

Example

$ pigs wvtat
9999

WVBSY - Check if waveform is being transmitted

This command checks to see if a waveform is currently being transmitted.

Returns 1 if a waveform is currently being transmitted, otherwise 0.

Example

$ pigs wvbsy
0

WVCHA bvs - Transmits a chain of waveforms

This command transmits a chain of waveforms.

NOTE: Any hardware PWM started by HP will be cancelled.

The waves to be transmitted are specified by the contents of bvs which contains an ordered list of wave_ids and optional command codes and related data.

Upon success 0 is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Each wave is transmitted in the order specified. A wave may occur multiple times per chain.

A blocks of waves may be transmitted multiple times by using the loop commands. The block is bracketed by loop start and end commands. Loops may be nested.

Delays between waves may be added with the delay command.

The following command codes are supported:

NameCmd & DataMeaning
Loop Start255 0Identify start of a wave block
Loop Repeat255 1 x yloop x + y*256 times
Delay255 2 x ydelay x + y*256 microseconds
Loop Forever255 3loop forever


If present Loop Forever must be the last entry in the chain.

The code is currently dimensioned to support a chain with roughly 600 entries and 20 loop counters.

Example

#!/bin/bash

GPIO=4
WAVES=5

pigs m $GPIO w

for ((i=0; i<$WAVES; i++))
do
   pigs wvag $((1<<GPIO)) 0 20 0 $((1<<GPIO)) $(((i+1)*200))
   w[i]=$(pigs wvcre)
done

# transmit waves 4+3+2
# loop start
#    transmit waves 0+0+0
#    loop start
#       transmit waves 0+1
#       delay 5000us
#    loop end (repeat 30 times)
#    loop start
#       transmit waves 2+3+0
#       transmit waves 3+1+2
#    loop end (repeat 10 times)
# loop end (repeat 5 times)
# transmit waves 4+4+4
# delay 20000us
# transmit waves 0+0+0

pigs wvcha \
   ${w[4]} ${w[3]} ${w[2]} \
   255 0 \
      ${w[0]} ${w[0]} ${w[0]} \
      255 0 \
         ${w[0]} ${w[1]} \
         255 2 0x88 0x13 \
      255 1 30 0 \
      255 0 \
         ${w[2]} ${w[3]} ${w[0]} \
         ${w[3]} ${w[1]} ${w[2]} \
      255 1 10 0 \
   255 1 5 0 \
   ${w[4]} ${w[4]} ${w[4]} \
   255 2 0x20 0x4E \
   ${w[0]} ${w[0]} ${w[0]}

while [[ $(pigs wvbsy) -eq 1 ]]; do sleep 0.1; done

for ((i=0; i<$WAVES; i++)); do echo ${w[i]}; pigs wvdel ${w[i]}; done

WVCLR - Clear all waveforms

This command clears all waveforms.

Nothing is returned.

Example

$ pigs wvclr

WVCRE - Create a waveform

This command creates a waveform from the data provided by the prior calls to the WVAG and WVAS commands.

Upon success a wave id (>=0) is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

The data provided by the WVAG and WVAS commands is consumed by this command.

As many waveforms may be created as there is space available. The wave id is passed to WVTX or WVTXR to specify the waveform to transmit.

Normal usage would be

Step 1. WVCLR to clear all waveforms and added data.

Step 2. WVAG/WVAS calls to supply the waveform data.

Step 3. WVCRE to create the waveform and get a unique id.

Repeat steps 2 and 3 as needed.

Step 4. WVTX or WVTXR with the id of the waveform to transmit.

A waveform comprises of one or more pulses.

A pulse specifies

1) the GPIO to be switched on at the start of the pulse.
2) the GPIO to be switched off at the start of the pulse.
3) the delay in microseconds before the next pulse.

Any or all the fields can be zero. It doesn't make any sense to set all the fields to zero (the pulse will be ignored).

When a waveform is started each pulse is executed in order with the specified delay between the pulse and the next.

Example

$ pigs wvas 4 9600 0 23 45 67 89 90
37
$ pigs wvcre
0

$ pigs wvcre
-69
ERROR: attempt to create an empty waveform

WVDEL wid - Delete selected waveform

This command deletes the waveform with id wid.

Upon success nothing is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs wvdel 0

$ pigs wvdel 0
-66
ERROR: non existent wave id

WVHLT - Stop waveform

This command aborts the transmission of the current waveform.

Nothing is returned.

This command is intended to stop a waveform started in the repeat mode.

Example

$ pigs wvhlt

WVNEW - Initialise a new waveform

This clears any existing waveform data ready for the creation of a new waveform.

Nothing is returned.

Example

$ pigs wvnew

WVSC ws - Get waveform DMA CB stats

The statistic requested by ws is returned.

ws identifies the subcommand as follows.

0 Get Cbs
1 Get High Cbs
2 Get Max Cbs

Example

$ pigs wvas 4 9600 0 23 45 67 89 90
37

$ pigs wvsc 0
74
$ pigs wvsc 1
74
$ pigs wvsc 2
25016

WVSM ws - Get waveform time stats

The statistic requested by ws is returned.

ws identifies the subcommand as follows.

0 Get Micros
1 Get High Micros
2 Get Max Micros

Example

$ pigs wvsm 0
5314
$ pigs wvsm 1
5314
$ pigs wvsm 2
1800000000

WVSP ws - Get waveform pulse stats

The statistic requested by ws is returned.

ws identifies the subcommand as follows.

0 Get Pulses
1 Get High Pulses
2 Get Max Pulses

Example

$ pigs wvsp 0
37
$ pigs wvsp 1
37
$ pigs wvsp 2
12000

WVTX wid - Transmits waveform once

This command transmits the waveform with id wid once.

NOTE: Any hardware PWM started by HP will be cancelled.

Upon success the number of DMA control blocks in the waveform is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs wvtx 1
75

$ pigs wvtx 2
-66
ERROR: non existent wave id

WVTXM wid wmde - Transmits waveform using mode

This command transmits the waveform with id wid using mode wmde.

The mode may be send once (0), send repeatedly (1), send once but first sync with previous wave (2), or send repeatedly but first sync with previous wave (3).

WARNING: bad things may happen if you delete the previous waveform before it has been synced to the new waveform.

NOTE: Any hardware PWM started by HP will be cancelled.

Upon success the number of DMA control blocks in the waveform is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs wvtxm 1 3
75

$ pigs wvtxm 2 0
-66
ERROR: non existent wave id

WVTXR wid - Transmits waveform repeatedly

This command transmits the waveform with id wid repeatedly.

NOTE: Any hardware PWM started by HP will be cancelled.

Upon success the number of DMA control blocks in the waveform is returned. On error a negative status code will be returned.

Example

$ pigs wvtxr 1
75

$ pigs wvtxr 2
-66
ERROR: non existent wave id

Parameters

actv - 0-1000000

The number of microseconds level changes are reported for once a noise filter has been triggered (by stdy microseconds of a stable level).

b - baud

The command expects the baud rate in bits per second for the transmission of serial data (I2C/SPI/serial link, waves).

bit - bit value (0-1)

The command expects 0 or 1.

bits - a bit mask

A mask is used to select one or more GPIO. A GPIO is selected if bit (1<<GPIO) is set in the mask.

E.g. a mask of 6 (binary 110) select GPIO 1 and 2, a mask of 0x103 (binary 100000011) selects GPIO 0, 1, and 8.

bv - a byte value (0-255)

The command expects a byte value.

bvs - byte values (0-255)

The command expects one or more byte values.

c - SPI channel (0-1)

The command expects a SPI channel.

cf - hardware clock frequency (4689-250M)

The command expects a frequency.

db - serial data bits (1-32)

The command expects the number of data bits per serial character.

dev - a tty serial device (/dev/tty* or /dev/serial*)

The command expects the name of a tty serial device, e.g.

/dev/ttyAMA0
/dev/ttyUSB0
/dev/tty0
/dev/serial0

file - a file name

The file name must match an entry in /opt/pigpio/access.

from - 0-2

Position to seek from FS.

From
0start
1current position
2end

g - GPIO (0-53)

The command expects a GPIO.

There are 54 General Purpose Input Outputs (GPIO) named gpio0 through gpio53.

They are split into two banks. Bank 1 consists of gpio0 through gpio31. Bank 2 consists of gpio32 through gpio53.

All the GPIO which are safe for the user to read and write are in bank 1. Not all GPIO in bank 1 are safe though. Type 1 boards have 17 safe GPIO. Type 2 boards have 21. Type 3 boards have 26.

See HWVER.

The user GPIO are marked with an X in the following table.

0123456789101112131415
Type 1XX--X--XXXXX--XX
Type 2--XXX--XXXXX--XX
Type 3XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
16171819202122232425262728293031
Type 1-XX--XXXXX------
Type 2-XX---XXXX-XXXXX
Type 3XXXXXXXXXXXX----


You are not prevented from writing to unsafe GPIO. The consequences of doing so range from no effect, to a crash, or corrupted data.

h - handle (>=0)

The command expects a handle.

A handle is a number referencing an object opened by one of FO, I2CO, NO, SERO, SPIO.

ib - I2C bus (>=0)

The command expects an I2C bus number.

id - I2C device (0-0x7F)

The command expects the address of an I2C device.

if - I2C flags (0)

The command expects an I2C flags value. No flags are currently defined.

L - level (0-1)

The command expects a GPIO level.

m - mode (RW540123)

The command expects a mode character.

Each GPIO can be configured to be in one of 8 different modes. The modes are named Input, Output, ALT0, ALT1, ALT2, ALT3, ALT4, and ALT5.

To set the mode use the code for the mode.

The value is returned by the mode get command.

ModeInputOutputALT0ALT1ALT2ALT3ALT4ALT5
CodeRW012345
Value01456732

mode - file open mode

One of the following values.

ValueMeaning
READ1open file for reading
WRITE2open file for writing
RW3open file for reading and writing


The following values can be or'd into the mode.

ValueMeaning
APPEND4All writes append data to the end of the file
CREATE8The file is created if it doesn't exist
TRUNC16The file is truncated

name - the name of a script

Only alphanumeric characters, '-' and '_' are allowed in the name.

num - maximum number of bytes to return (1-)

The command expects the maximum number of bytes to return.

For the I2C and SPI commands the requested number of bytes will always be returned.

For the serial and file commands the smaller of the number of bytes available to be read (which may be zero) and num bytes will be returned.

o - offset (>=0)

Serial data is stored offset microseconds from the start of the waveform.

p - PUD (ODU)

The command expects a PUD character.

Each GPIO can be configured to use or not use an internal pull up or pull down resistor. This is useful to provide a default state for inputs.

A pull up will default the input to 1 (high).

A pull down will default the input to 0 (low).

To set the pull up down state use the command character for the state.

Pull Up DownOffPull DownPull Up
Command CharacterODU


There is no mechanism to read the pull up down state.

pad - 0-2

A set of GPIO which share common drivers.

PadGPIO
00-27
128-45
246-53

padma - 1-16

The mA which may be drawn from each GPIO whilst still guaranteeing the high and low levels.

pars - script parameters

The command expects 0 to 10 numbers as parameters to be passed to the script.

pat - a file name pattern

A file path which may contain wildcards. To be accessible the path must match an entry in /opt/pigpio/access.

pdc - hardware PWM dutycycle (0-1000000)

The command expects a dutycycle.

pf - hardware PWM frequency (1-125M)

The command expects a frequency.

pl - pulse length (1-100)

The command expects a pulse length in microseconds.

r - register (0-255)

The command expects an I2C register number.

sb - serial stop (half) bits (2-8)

The command expects the number of stop (half) bits per serial character.

scl - user GPIO (0-31)

The command expects the number of the GPIO to be used for SCL when bit banging I2C.

sda - user GPIO (0-31)

The command expects the number of the GPIO to be used for SDA when bit banging I2C.

sef - serial flags (32 bits)

The command expects a flag value. No serial flags are currently defined.

sid - script id (>= 0)

The command expects a script id as returned by a call to PROC.

spf - SPI flags (32 bits)

See SPIO.

stdy - 0-300000

The number of microseconds level changes must be stable for before reporting the level changed (FG) or triggering the active part of a noise filter (FN).

str - a string

The command expects a string.

t - a string

The command expects a string.

trips - triplets

The command expects 1 or more triplets of GPIO on, GPIO off, delay.

E.g. 0x400000 0 100000 0 0x400000 900000 defines two pulses as follows

GPIO onGPIO offdelay
0x400000 (GPIO 22)0 (None)100000 (1/10th s)
0 (None)0x400000 (GPIO 22)900000 (9/10th s)

u - user GPIO (0-31)

The command expects the number of a user GPIO.

A number of commands are restricted to GPIO in bank 1, in particular the PWM commands, the servo command, the watchdog command, and the notification command.

It is your responsibility to ensure that the PWM and servo commands are only used on safe GPIO.

See g

uvs - values

The command expects an arbitrary number of >=0 values (possibly none). Any after the first two must be <= 255.

v - value

The command expects a number.

wid - wave id (>=0)

The command expects a wave id.

When a waveform is created it is given an id (0, 1, 2, ...).

wmde - mode (0-3)

The command expects a wave transmission mode.

0 = send once
1 = send repeatedly
2 = send once but first sync with previous wave
3 = send repeatedly but first sync with previous wave

ws - wave stats sucommand (0-2)

The command expects a subcommand.

0 = current value.
1 = highest value so far.
2 = maximum possible value.

wv - word value (0-65535)

The command expects a word value.

Scripts

Scripts are programs to be stored and executed by the pigpio daemon. They are intended to mitigate any performance problems associated with the pigpio daemon server/client model.

Example

A trivial example might be useful. Suppose you want to toggle a GPIO on and off as fast as possible.

From the command line you could write

for ((i=0; i<1000;i++)); do pigs w 22 1 w 22 0; done


Timing that you will see it takes about 14 seconds, or roughly 70 toggles per second.

Using the pigpio Python module you could use code such as

#!/usr/bin/env python

import time

import pigpio

PIN=4

TOGGLE=10000

pi = pigpio.pi() # Connect to local Pi.

s = time.time()

for i in range(TOGGLE):
   pi.write(PIN, 1)
   pi.write(PIN, 0)

e = time.time()

print("pigpio did {} toggles per second".format(int(TOGGLE/(e-s))))

pi.stop()


Timing that shows a speed improvement to roughly 800 toggles per second.

Now let's use a script.

pigs proc tag 999 w 22 1 w 22 0 dcr p0 jp 999


Ignore the details for now.

Let's time the script running.

Again, ignore the details for now.

time (pigs procr 0 10000000; while a=$(pigs procp 0); [[ ${a::1} -eq 2 ]];\
 do sleep 0.2; done)


The script takes roughly 12 seconds to complete, or 800,000 toggles per second.

That is the advantage of a stored script.

Some details.

pigs proc tag 999 w 22 1 w 22 0 dcr p0 jp 999


proc introduces a script. Everything after proc is part of the script.
tag 999 names the current position in the script.
w 22 1 writes 1 to GPIO 22.
w 22 0 writes 0 to GPIO 22.
dcr p0 decrements parameter 0.
jp 999 jumps to tag 999 if the result is positive.

time (pigs procr 0 10000000; while a=$(pigs procp 0); [[ ${a::1} -eq 2 ]];\
 do sleep 0.2; done)


pigs procr 0 10000000 starts script 0 with parameter 0 of 10 million.

The rest is bash apart from

pigs procp 0 asks for the status and parameters of script 0. The status will be 2 while the script is running and 1 when it is complete.

Virtual machine

A script runs within a virtual machine with

a 32 bit accumulator A.
a flags register F.
a program counter PC.

Each script has

10 parameters named 0 through 9.
150 variables named 0 through 149.
50 labels which are named by any unique number.

Commands

All the normal pigs commands may be used within a script. However commands which return more than an integer will be of little use.

The following commands are only legal within a script.

CommandDescriptionDefinition
ADD xAdd x to accumulatorA+=x; F=A
AND xAnd x with accumulatorA&=x; F=A
CALL LCall subroutine at tag Lpush(PC+1); PC=L
CMP xCompare x with accumulatorF=A-x
DCR yDecrement register--*y; F=*y
DCRADecrement accumulator--A; F=A
DIV xDivide x into accumulatorA/=x; F=A
HALTHaltHalt
INR yIncrement register++*y; F=*y
INRAIncrement accumulator++A; F=A
JM LJump if minus to tag Lif (F<0) PC=L
JMP LJump to tag LPC=L
JNZ LJump if non-zero to tag Lif (F) PC=L
JP LJump if positive to tag Lif (F>=0) PC=L
JZ LJump if zero to tag Lif (!F) PC=L
LD y xLoad register with x*y=x
LDA xLoad accumulator with xA=x
MLT xMultiply x with accumulatorA*=x; F=A
MOD xModulus x with accumulatorA%=x; F=A
OR xOr x with accumulatorA|=x; F=A
POP yPop registery=pop()
POPAPop accumulatorA=pop()
PUSH yPush registerpush(y)
PUSHAPush accumulatorpush(A)
RETReturn from subroutinePC=pop()
RL y xRotate left register x bits*y<<=x; F=*y
RLA xRotate left accumulator x bitsA<<=x; F=A
RR y xRotate right register x bits*y>>=x; F=*y
RRA xRotate right accumulator x bitsA>>=x; F=A
STA yStore accumulator in registery=A
SUB xSubtract x from accumulatorA-=x; F=A
SYS strRun external script (/opt/pigpio/cgi/str)system(str); F=A
TAG LLabel the current script positionN/A
WAIT xWait for a GPIO in x to change stateA=wait(x); F=A
X y1 y2Exchange contents of registers y1 and y2t=*y1;*y1=*y2;*y2=t
XA yExchange contents of accumulator and registert=A;A=*y;*y=t
XOR xXor x with accumulatorA^=x; F=A


x may be a constant, a parameter (p0-p9), or a variable (v0-v149).

y may be a parameter (p0-p9), or a variable (v0-v149). If p or v isn't specified y is assumed to be a variable.

The WAIT command parameter is a bit-mask with 1 set for GPIO of interest.

The SYS script receives two unsigned parameters: the accumulator A and the current GPIO levels.

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Updated: 10/07/2016